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  Most popular articles (Since May 29, 2020)

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The advantages and disadvantages of online teaching in medical education
Stuty Jayara
September-December 2020, 1(2):144-146
  13,546 609 -
Status of nurses in India: Current situation analysis and strategies to improve
Suresh K Sharma, Kalpana Thakur, Pastin Pushpa Rani Peter
September-December 2020, 1(2):147-152
  8,151 326 -
Fetal and infant embalming- A cost effective approach
Pooja Bhadoria, Mathew Joseph, Amarjyoti Chaturvedi, Brijendra Singh
September-December 2020, 1(2):138-141
  4,781 167 -
Medical education in India
Ravi Kant, Vartika Saxena, Jayanti Pant
May-August 2020, 1(1):42-44
  4,092 255 1
Prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Manisha Dhinwa, Kanchan Gawande, Nishu Jha, M Anjali, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Smita Sinha
May-August 2021, 2(2):105-112
Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension is one of the major health problems leading to maternal mortality. Globally, one woman dies every 7 min due to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDOP). Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia contribute majority of maternal, perinatal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in India. Methods: A systematic search was done through PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus for studies conducted on HDOP. All studies that met inclusion criteria published till January 2020 were included and analysed. The analysis was done using STATA 20.0 software (STATA Version 20.0 is sufficient). The pooled prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy was estimated using both mixed-effects and random-effects models. Results: A total of 18 studies with 92,220 study participants (pregnant women) were included in this review. The estimated overall pooled prevalence of HDOP in India was found to be 11% (95% confidence interval, 5%–17%). Most of the included studies were cross sectional and from the southern zone of India. Conclusions: The overall pooled estimate shows high prevalence, i.e., 1 out of 11 women suffers from pregnancy-induced hypertension. High prevalence of hypertension in the study population demands the attention of policymakers and healthcare professionals. Better implementation of early screening of hypertension during pregnancy should be undertaken.
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Evolution and current scenario of doctoral nursing education in India
Suresh K Sharma, Ritu Rani, Sonali Banerjee, Khadizah Haji Abdul Mumin
January-April 2021, 2(1):79-85
  3,731 153 -
National nursing and midwifery commission bill: Hopes and challenges
Rajini Peter, Suresh K Sharma
January-April 2022, 3(1):55-59
The purpose of this article is to summarise the major features of the National Nursing and Midwifery Commission (NNMC) Bill, as well as the opportunities and challenges that the proposed legislation presents. We look forward to improved professional standards, title protection, higher quality education, precise scope of practice guidelines and standardisation of nursing and midwifery registration as the Indian Nursing Council gets replaced by the National Nursing and Midwifery Council. We are hopeful for a rapid start and expansion of advanced nurse practitioner programmes, which will allow for increased participation in the country's health system and the advancement of health-care goals.
  3,430 123 -
Nuclear Medicine from the past to the present: A brief story of its development, key impact areas in current times and its potential for the future
Vandana Kumar Dhingra, Mohit Dhingra, Sandip Basu
May-August 2020, 1(1):26-32
In this review, we briefly outline the journey and development of Nuclear Medicine in the Western world in contrast with its development in India and highlight the key areas where this modality has an impact today and likely to develop in the near future. A special mention of the recent developments in clinical Nuclear Medicine including Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) which form the backbone of personalised medicine is made.
  3,141 224 -
Interview with environmentalist: Shri Sunderlal Bahuguna
Nishu Jha, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Manoj Gupta
September-December 2020, 1(2):153-154
  3,191 135 -
COVID-19: No end to controversies
Mahendra Singh, Yogesh Bahurupi, Abhishek Sharma, Bhavna Jain, Surekha Kishore, Pradeep Aggarwal, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria
May-August 2020, 1(1):38-41
The pandemic of COVID-19 is a global public health emergency which has seriously affected India. Poor and marginalized sections of the society have been affected the most. This relatively new disease is still evolving in various parts of the world with lots of implications like global socioeconomic disruption. In this article we have attempted to enumerate and discuss the evidence, for and against, regarding some of the commonly reported controversies regarding our management strategies in India. We collected information from various databases published by the World Health Organization (WHO), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Newer clinical, epidemiological and laboratory guidelines to control the corona virus are constantly being generated and updated but there is less understanding of the urgent need for strengthening our public health infrastructure.
  3,066 218 -
Working as a surgeon in India versus the United States
Vinay Kumaran
September-December 2021, 2(3):246-249
  2,980 129 -
Clinical spectrum of carcinoma of the gallbladder in the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Western Uttar Pradesh: A retrospective study from a tertiary care hospital of Northern India
Navin Kumar, Deepak Rajput, Amit Gupta, Varun Popuri, Tanuj Singla, Ashikesh Kundal, Jyoti Sharma, Bhargav Gajula
May-August 2020, 1(1):4-7
Background: North India has a very high incidence of Carcinoma gallbladder (GBC). The aim of the study was to identify the hotspot regions and relationship of gallstones to GBC in two northern states of India. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective, observational, hospital-based cohort study. The data of patients with locally advanced (LA) or metastatic GBC from January 2019 to December 2019 were evaluated for geographical distribution of cases, and their clinical spectrum was compared with the presence or absence of associated cholelithiasis. Statistical analysis was performed using R Statistical software version 3.6.2. Results: Forty-two patients were enrolled in our study. A high burden of GBC was observed from Western Uttar Pradesh (District Bijnor 12(29%) and Muzaffarnagar 7(17%)) and Uttarakhand (District Haridwar 7(17%), whereas the remaining 16(38%) patients were residents of other districts of Uttarakhand (UK) and Western Uttar Pradesh (UP). In our study, only 17(40.5%) patients had associated cholelithiasis. Metastatic disease at presentation was seen in nearly 59% of patients with cholelithiasis and 52% of patients without cholelithiasis. Jaundice was the most common presentation in 12(70.6%) patients, followed by pain in 9(nearly 53%) patients with GBC associated with gallstones. Whereas in patients with GBC without gallstones, loss of appetite and loss of weight was the most common presentation in 16(64%) followed by jaundice in 13(52%). Conclusion: Most cases with LA or metastatic GBC in the present study were not associated with cholelithiasis. Clinical spectrum of either LA or metastatic GBC is similar, irrespective of presence or absence of gallstones.
  2,726 254 1
Spatial clustering and impact of household characteristics on under-five mortality in India: A secondary data analysis
Jatin Chaudary, S Akshay, D Shivaram Reddy, Anusha Sharma, Nishu Jha, Pawna Kaushal, Akshay Malik
May-August 2020, 1(1):15-20
Background: Under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is one among the best social indicators that identifies social development and well-being. Various risk factors are seen contributing to its increase. Aim: The present correlational study aims to identify the spatial clustering of U5MR in different states and union territories (UTs) of India and determines its association with household characteristics. Patients and Methods: The present study incorporates primary data for 29 states and 2 UTs (Delhi and Chandigarh) of India from the National Family and Health Survey-4 (2015–2016) for secondary data analysis. The data include the outcome variable which was the U5MR and predictor variables such as households with electricity; improved source of drinking water; toilet facility; solid fuels being used for cooking; anyone smoking and living in a pucca house. Primary data were analysed using GeoDa software, employing Univariate Local Indicators of Spatial Association, Spearman's correlation coefficient, ordinary least square (OLS) and spatial error model (SEM). Results: The study showed significant spatial clustering of high U5MR in six states and one UT, namely Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and Delhi and clustering of lower U5MR in southern states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The Spearman's correlation showed a significant positive association of U5MR with households using solid fuel for cooking and negative association with households using electricity, with toilet facility and Living in a pucca house. The OLS and SEM spatial regression models model showed an association between households with toilet facility and in which anyone smokes at home with under-five mortality. Conclusions: U5MR shows a significant clustering geographically. This mortality indicator is influenced by the external environment such as household characteristics.
  2,704 226 -
Scrub typhus in the Himalayan ranges and sub-Himalayan plains: Recognising an expanding clinical syndrome
Augustine Jose, Apoorva Chaudhary, Prasan Kumar Panda, Deepjyoti Kalita
May-August 2020, 1(1):8-14
Background: Scrub typhus, a rickettsial zoonosis, is endemic in the Indian sub-continent but is rare in the Himalayan region due to natural geographic barriers to both organism and vector. Aims: To study the clinical profile of scrub typhus cases admitted in a tertiary care center. Patients and Methods: We did a retrospective observational study of the positive cases from July 2018 to June 2019 in a tertiary care center. All possible risk factors, demographic details, clinical presentations, laboratory parameters, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed. Results: A total of 80 cases were analyzed. The maximum number of cases was observed in September. Major symptoms noted were fever, abdominal pain, headache, cough, breathlessness, and myalgia. Atypical presentations including capillary syndrome and demyelinating polyneuropathy were observed. The eschar detection rate was low. Among organ involvement, hematology system (70%) was most commonly involved followed by liver, kidney, brain, lungs, and heart respectively. The case fatality rate was 6.82%. Himalayan and non-Himalayan cohorts (n = 32 vs 48 respectively) did not show any statistically significant differences in clinical profile, although one could observe that Himalayan cohorts had higher incidences of leukopenia, splenomegaly, and myocarditis, while fever for >7days at admission, hepatomegaly, acute respiratory distress syndrome, major organ involvement resulting admission in high dependency unit (HDU), and mortality were higher in non-Himalayan cohorts. Conclusion: The current study reveals few atypical presentations and complications differing from the classical scrub typhus. Raised ALP is noticed in majority of cases which can be established as a diagnostic marker in acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in further study. The presence of leukocytosis has high predictive association with major organ involvement and complications.
  2,700 188 -
Study of pre-analytical errors in haematology laboratory: A single-centre experience
Harish Chandra, Arvind Kumar Gupta, Neha Singh
September-December 2020, 1(2):92-95
Aims and Objectives: Total quality management is an essential component of laboratory to maintain quality and includes pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases. Pre-analytical phase starts from ordering investigation by the clinician till it is analysed in the laboratory. It is essential that a pathologist is aware of the confounding factors that may lead to pre-analytical errors with the knowledge of reducing them to improve the quality of the lab. The present study was conducted to evaluate the pre-analytical errors in the haematology laboratory and steps taken to minimise it. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Haematology Laboratory of Pathology Department, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, over a period of 4 years and included all the blood samples analysed in the lab. The pre-analytical variables including requisition form, patient preparation, labelling, sample collection, quality and transportation were analysed for the errors along with the corrective actions taken to minimise them. Results: A total of 25,15,583 investigations were received in the haematology laboratory over a period of 4 years. The total errors observed in the haematology lab in pre-analytical phase were 13,031 comprising 0.51% of total haematological investigations during the study period. The most common error observed was due to clotted sample (40.3%), followed by haemolysed samples (15%) and incomplete or wrongly filled requisition forms (10%). Conclusion: Pre-analytical phase forms an integral part of total quality management system and its analysis is essential to minimise the errors in haematology lab. The quality of blood sample with completely filled requisition forms and prompt transportation of sample to the lab are essential components to avoid pre-analytical errors. In addition, continuous training and acknowledgement of non-conformance with root cause analysis is the basic key for reducing errors and improving quality of haematology lab.
  2,651 206 -
Mental health and COVID
Sanjay Chugh
September-December 2020, 1(2):159-160
  2,607 178 -
COVID-19: Gut and liver
Deepanshu Paliwal, Swati Rajput, Satyavati Rana
May-August 2020, 1(1):21-25
Currently, the world is facing a pandemic induced by novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), termed as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients typically present with myalgia, fever and respiratory symptoms, but studies have stated the existence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, liver injury and existence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the faecal specimen of these individuals. GI symptoms were also common during the previous outbreak of coronavirus family, i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome in 2003 and 2012, respectively. Literature reports multiple studies with varied proportions of GI symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Hepatic injury was assessed with abnormal serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin. SARS-CoV-2 may enter host cells by the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor which is present in enterocytes (in small intestine), cholangiocytes (in bile duct) and hepatocytes (in liver) suggesting replication of virus in intestine and liver. This might be the cause of dysregulation of liver and GI functions. Another possible mechanism of dysregulation of the intestinal and hepatic systems might include inflammatory cytokine storm or antibiotic-induced toxicity. This article discusses a possible faecal-oral transmission due to viral shedding in the stool. This review article also emphasises on GI and hepatic aspects of COVID-19 which might become a defining tool in our fight against it.
  2,546 229 -
COVID-19 in India's towns and villages
Prasan Kumar Panda, UB Mishra
May-August 2020, 1(1):2-3
  2,475 226 -
My ideal medical college
Pranjal Garg
May-August 2020, 1(1):61-64
An ideal medical college not only delivers medical education but also introduces new trends in medicine. There are numerous elements of an ideal medical college. In this article, a comprehensive list of some of the elements is given, which are often ignored by medical students and medical institutions. The list includes acceptance to change, medical research, technical advancements in medicine, communication skills, public health, some structural changes in medical education, teaching methods and assessment of students, burnout and mental health issues among students. However, this list is not exhaustive, and only continuous feedback can help a medical establishment to reach the epitome of idealism.
  2,492 209 1
How to do it: Living donor liver transplantation
Puneet Dhar, Abhishek Agrawal, Sudhindran Surendran, Unnikrishnan Gopalakrishnan, Samiran Nundy
May-August 2020, 1(1):54-60
Use of living donor has expanded the pool of potential transplant recipients. We have outlined here the indications, contraindications, donor workup and surgical technique of modified right liver graft retrieval, recipient hepatectomy, benching and recipient implantation in brief.
  2,452 195 -
Fatty liver disease is a neglected non-communicable disease in world health organization global action plan for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases 2013–2020: A call for policy action
Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Surabhi Mishra, Ravi Kant, Samiran Nundy
September-December 2020, 1(2):75-77
  2,447 168 -
The Journal of Medical Evidence from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh
Ravi Kant, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Samiran Nundy
May-August 2020, 1(1):1-1
  2,360 242 -
Combating the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: 'Lockdowns' amplify the problem
Subhra Rajat Balabantaray, Archisman Mohapatra
May-August 2020, 1(1):51-53
  2,246 195 -
Modified Kuppuswamy socio-economic status scale with 2016 as base year – An update for 2021
M Anjali, Meenakshi Khapre, TJ Asha, Ankita Rahul
September-December 2021, 2(3):234-235
Socio-economic status is the key parameter for understanding the affordability of the community of health services and their purchasing capacity. Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale based on educational, occupational status of head of the family and overall aggregate income of the whole family measures the socio-economic status of urban areas. The scale changes with the updated values of consumer-price index and base year.
  2,333 106 -
The doctor I want to be
Oshin Puri
May-August 2020, 1(1):65-66
  2,216 192 1