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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2021
Volume 2 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 101-200

Online since Monday, August 30, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Dynamics of health-care professional deployment in COVID-19 pandemic p. 101
Mridul Dhar, Jitender Chaturvedi, Prasan Kumar Panda, Itish Patnaik, Puneet Dhar
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_47_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis p. 105
Manisha Dhinwa, Kanchan Gawande, Nishu Jha, M Anjali, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Smita Sinha
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_168_20  
Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension is one of the major health problems leading to maternal mortality. Globally, one woman dies every 7 min due to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDOP). Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia contribute majority of maternal, perinatal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in India. Methods: A systematic search was done through PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus for studies conducted on HDOP. All studies that met inclusion criteria published till January 2020 were included and analysed. The analysis was done using STATA 20.0 software (STATA Version 20.0 is sufficient). The pooled prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy was estimated using both mixed-effects and random-effects models. Results: A total of 18 studies with 92,220 study participants (pregnant women) were included in this review. The estimated overall pooled prevalence of HDOP in India was found to be 11% (95% confidence interval, 5%–17%). Most of the included studies were cross sectional and from the southern zone of India. Conclusions: The overall pooled estimate shows high prevalence, i.e., 1 out of 11 women suffers from pregnancy-induced hypertension. High prevalence of hypertension in the study population demands the attention of policymakers and healthcare professionals. Better implementation of early screening of hypertension during pregnancy should be undertaken.
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Elderly abuse and quality of life: A study of community living older people of Nepal p. 113
Mahendra Raj Joshi, Hom Nath Chalise
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_140_20  
Background: The abuse and neglect of older people in the family context are emerging as a significant social, as well as a public health concern that is affecting the overall quality of life (QOL) of the elderly. Aims: The main objective of this paper was to study the experience of abuse and its relation with QOL of older people in rural Nepal. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, community-based survey carried out in the Kailali district of Nepal. The total sample size for this study was 547 people aged 60 years and older selected randomly. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization QOL scale popularly known as WHOQOL-BREF. Elderly abuse was measured by asking questions related to elderly abuse in the last 1 month. The descriptive technique is used to analyse the data. Descriptive, chi-square tests and F-test was used to analyze the data. Results: The findings show that about one-sixth of males (15.6%) and one in every seven females (14.3%) have faced any type of abuse in the last 1 month. This study found that overall QOL score of the Nepalese elderly was moderate (12.92 ± 1.75). The mean scores of the overall QOL index of people experiencing abuse were observed significantly low (12.28 ± 1.74) compared to those who did not experience any abuse (13.04 ± 1.73). Conclusions: Elderly experiencing abuse have significantly low QOL compared to not abused elderly in Nepal. The experience of abuse was elicited in the last 1 month. This study was carried out in specific rural area and cannot be generalised to all Nepali older people. Local activities and awareness to discourage older person's abuse should be encouraged that may help to enhance the QOL of older people.
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Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on individual hand hygiene infection control practices among healthcare workers: A questionnaire-based survey p. 120
Prakhar Sharma, Mihir Raman Gangakhedkar, Yogesh Arvind Bahurupi, Puneet Kumar Gupta, Vipul Prakash, Ruchi Dua, Kashmi Sharma, Lokesh Kumar Saini
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_194_20  
Background: COVID-19 is primarily transmitted by droplets, aerosols and fomites. While adequate hand hygiene (HH) practice has already been proven to reduce transmission of pathogens and prevent infection, its role in checking cross-contamination with SARS-CoV-2 appears paramount. Aim: To assess the impact COVID 19 has had on individual HH practices among health care workers (HCW) at a tertiary health care center. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among HCWs for a period of 15 days from May to June 2020. The survey was distributed online via Google Forms after acquiring permission from Institutional Ethics Committee. Results: Two hundred and three completed survey questionnaires were received, primarily from nursing officers (42.4%) and residents (38.9%). Comparison of pre- and post-COVID-19 habits revealed a significant change in awareness regarding hand washing steps (87%–100%), practicing all steps of hand washing (66%–99%), washing hand before and after touching patient (55%–92% and 77%–100%, respectively), washing hands before going home (30%–91%), washing hands despite wearing gloves (21%–80%) and after touching patient's surroundings (46%–92%). Another significant finding observed was that almost 72% of the respondents took time to educate someone close by in HH and washing steps. Conclusion: The pandemic has seen an improvement in practices of HH. This change will not only impact the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, but every infectious disease spread similarly. Moreover, educating the general public would help in curbing the spread of COVID-19.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE ON MEDICAL EDUCATION Top

Factors influencing the success of faculty development programme: Our experience and future recommendations p. 125
Madhubari Vathulya, Shalinee Rao, Rajesh Kathrotia, Manisha Naithani, Manisha Bisht, Saurabh Varshney, Gita Negi, Latika Mohan, Pratima Gupta, Ravi Kant
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_28_21  
Background: The success of any training program is influenced by factors such as the course facilitator, learner and learning environment. Faculty Development Programs are conducted in institutes from time to time to train the trainer. Aims: The article aims to evaluate two Faculty Development Programs conducted at a tertiary care institute and address the concerns and suggestions as educationists. Subjects and Methods: Data generated from the 4-day workshop on Faculty Development Course conducted in two subsequent programmes in the year 2019 were reviewed. The performance of participants was analyzed based on their performance in pre-test and post-test administered through a set of pre-validated questionnaires. Participant feedback as well as their response to facilitatory and hindering factors was evaluated. Results: A total of 57 participants attended the workshop (cumulative both FDP). Pre-test post-test scores were 7.55 ± 2.2 and 12.5 ± 1.87, and improvement in knowledge was statistically significant with P < 0.0001. Overall, FDP was rated very good to good by 97% of the participants. Interactive sessions, group activity and discussions facilitated learning, while prolonged and hurried up sessions as well as non-availability of prior reading material were major hindrances. Conclusion: A low baseline knowledge of participants emphasizes the need for an early introduction to FDP with interactive sessions, good time management and a non-threatening environment to maintain the interest of learner and facilitates learning. The article in addition also discusses about the inadequacies and lacunae of the existing programme.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Micro-nutrient deficiencies among children in India p. 134
Kanchan Gawande, Nishu Jha, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Gaurika Saxena, Sweta Yadav
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_169_20  
The article provides a comprehensive review of the current situation of micronutrient deficiencies (MND) among children in India. It provides information of common MND with its prevalence and geographical distribution. The review includes a nationally representative survey, nutritional reports and studies conducted in the different regions of India. Iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and iodine deficiency disorder are found to be the most prevalent MND among children. The prevalence of anaemia ranging from 21% to 59.2%, VAD reported as a maximum of 10.2% in one of the recent Indian studies while the total goitre rate of highest as 21.9%. With the implementation of various nutritional programs for children, these deficiencies are found to be significant mainly among pre-school children. The recommendation on strengthening existing nutritional health programmes with some new intervention strategies to improve the micronutrient status among children and to reduce the economic burden to MND in the coming years.
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Prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases in India needs a strengthened and well-functioning primary health care system: A narrative review p. 140
Chandrakant Lahariya, Surabhi Mishra, Roy Arokiam Daniel, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Deepak Kumar Mishra, Robert Dean Smith
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_166_20  
This article reviews the ongoing initiatives to prevent and control cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in India and analyses the role of primary health care (PHC) system. The authors note that in last 2 decades, there has been increasing policy recognition of the challenges posed by CVDs and NCDs in India. The review of ongoing government health program in India indicate that while the interventions to tackle CVDs and NCD have also been launched and scaled up, a majority of these initiatives continue to be delivered through district or sub-district levels. Though, there has been plans, the scale up through PHC system is at early stage only. There is sufficient scientific evidence that the effective prevention and control of CVDs need accessible health services and a series of public health interventions through strengthened PHC system. There are learnings from COVID-19 pandemic response in India (in areas such as private sector engagement, effective enforcement of health regulation, community engagement and the use of tele-consultations), which can be useful. The authors conclude that a strengthened and well-functioning PHC system can ensure increased access to CVD and NCD services. As India plans to scale up ongoing health programs and launch a few new initiatives, the learnings from the past, documented in this paper, could be useful. These steps would help India to accelerate progress towards universal health coverage.
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Neurocutaneous syndromes: Imaging of systemic manifestations p. 147
Reshma Varghese, Khanak Nandolia, Sudhir Saxena, Anjum Syed, Pankaj Sharma
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_80_20  
Neurocutaneous syndromes are a diverse group of inherited disorders with variable penetrance affecting structures developing from neuroectoderm. They are not appropriately evaluated, and these disorders are lifelong conditions that can cause tumours to grow in the skin, viscera and central nervous system. More than 30 entities are included in this group. Our pictorial review describes imaging of systemic features of common neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis 1, neurofibromatosis 2, tuberous sclerosis, Sturge–Weber syndrome and Von Hippel–Lindau syndrome. The imaging modalities of choice are magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT). Although advances in molecular imaging can determine genetic abnormality, a radiological examination is required for early identification of lesions, monitoring disease progression and further management. Our review aims to familiarise our readers with common neurocutaneous syndromes and imaging of their systemic manifestations.
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REVIEW ARTICLE ON MEDICINE AND SOCIETY Top

Everyday ethical issues in Indian medical practice p. 155
Anand Bharathan, Jayapal Rajendran
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_51_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLES ON CONTROVERSIES IN MEDICINE Top

The case for paternalism p. 159
Muthu Krishna Mani
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_49_21  
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Physicians are not the patient's parents! p. 163
Sunil K Pandya
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_46_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLE ON HOW TO DO IT Top

Submuscular placement of pacemaker: A new method p. 166
Vishal Mago, Nishank Manohar, Bhanu Duggal
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_30_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLES ON NURSESí SECTION Top

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on nursing education and way forward p. 169
Filiz Ogce Aktas, Tülay Yavan, Suresh Kumar Sharma
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_43_21  
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Preparedness to combat next wave of COVID-19 in India p. 173
Nipin Kalal, Nimarta Rana
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_70_21  
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CASE REPORTS Top

Chronic non-healing lower-extremity ulcer in a 55-year-old male p. 175
Aarthi Rajkumar, Jesse Dion
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_39_20  
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Myofibroblastic sarcoma of the nasal sill presenting as extranasal polyp: An extreme rarity p. 179
AJ Praveen, Manish Pradip Jagtap, Debarati Chattopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_58_20  
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Giant splenic artery aneurysm with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction – A rare entity: Case report with literature review p. 182
Nisanth Puliyath, Nirjhar Raj, Sumit Sanyal, Debendra Kumar Tripathy, Rohit Gupta
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_59_20  
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Microscopic polyangiitis presenting as acute flaccid paralysis mimicking Guillain–Barre syndrome p. 185
Abhijith Rajaram Rao, Meenal Thakral, Akshata Rao, Avinash Chakrawarty
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_3_21  
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CLINICAL IMAGES Top

Jack stone: When the urologist finds a SARS-CoV-2 virus look alike in the bladder! p. 187
Satish Kumar Ranjan, Rudra Prasad Ghorai, Tushar Aditya Narain, Puneet Dhar, Arup Kumar Mandal
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_193_20  
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CONFERENCE REPORT Top

Conference report of the international webinar on qualitative research in nursing p. 189
T Nirmala, K Kanchana
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_48_21  
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JOURNAL SCAN Top

Patient feedback on the quality of care they receive in hospitals in the UK: Is it possible to replicate this in India? p. 191
Jini Jacob, Merin Nitin Thomas, Samiran Nundy
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_38_21  
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OBITUARIES Top

Prof. Shashi Prateek (10 October 1950–12 June 2021) p. 193
Ravi Kant
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_64_21  
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Dr. Rita Sood: An erudite physician and ardent medical educationist p. 195
Shashi Bala Paul, Vinod Kumar Paul
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_61_21  
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Late (Prof) G D Goel p. 197
Vijay Arora
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_53_21  
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BOOK REVIEW Top

The forest of enchantments (Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni) p. 198
Samrat Ray
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_69_21  
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Identity to leprosy-affected patients: Aadhar success story p. 199
Vartika Saxena
DOI:10.4103/JME.JME_189_20  
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